Clement was the son of Giuliano de Medici, who was brother to Lorenzo the Magnificence. Johannes Bugenhagen. An illegitimate son of Giuliano de’ Medici (not to be confused with Giuliano de’ Medici, duc de Nemours, his cousin), he was reared by his uncle Lorenzo the Magnificent. The saga started in 1527, when the English king, Henry VIII, sought to have his marriage to Catherine of Aragon annulled. Although his uncle had planned a military career for him, Giulio de' Medici was interested in a life in the clergy. The Act of Supremacy followed (November 1534), making the king of England head of the English church. Hadrian was selected chiefly for his commitment to reform and his relationship with the emperor, whom he had served as tutor in Burgundy, but the Medici cardinal still continued his leading diplomatic role in the curia under the new pope. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Catherine of Aragon, painting by Michael Sittow, late 15th or early 16th century; in the Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna. Trained as a Benedictine monk, Clement, the fourth of the seven Avignon popes, had previously been the archbishop of Sens and of Rouens, respectively. Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. His indecisiveness allowed the Protestant Reformation to grow and resulted in Henry VIII’s eventual split from Rome. The future Clement VII was a well-respected man in Rome. Contents[show] Early life He was born in Florence one month after his father's death. Though he was a prospect for the pontificate when Leo died in 1521, Clement lost the election to Hadrian VI, the former Adrian Florensz and bishop of Utrecht. Pope Clement VII. Roman Catholic Pope, 1523-34. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Leo appointment him papal vice-chancellor in March 1517 and in May 1519 made him papal legate to Tuscany, where he governed Florence. The second Medici to wear the papal tiara in three pontificates, Clement VII’s tenure was marked by his relative inability to make progress in the face of political and ecclesiastical challenges. Since Clement was at the time still imprisoned by Charles, he reserved judgment on the matter. Beyond these prominent public failings, Clement generally represents the last of the Renaissance popes before the era of the Counter Reformation that began with the Council of Trent under Paul III. Birthplace: Florence, Italy Location of death: Rome, Italy Cause of death: unspecified Remains: Buried,. He was the illegitimate son of Giuliano de’ Medici (1453–1478) and Fioretta Gorini. Page 2 of 50 - About 500 Essays The Little Mermaid And Sakuntala And The Ring Of Recollection. 1478; d.September 25, 1534. As cardinal he commissioned Raphael to paint the huge altarpiece the “Transfiguration” for his cathedral at Narbonne, France. Season 1. As interim measures, he declared that a reform of the curia was needed because of the excessive accumulation of benefices and he promised a special investigation of all Roman benefices by a team of auditors, though it never came to fruition. Clement VII (Latin: Clemens Septimus; 26 May 1478 – 25 September 1534), born Giulio di Giuliano de' Medici, was an Italian cleric of the Roman Catholic Church. It is an untranslated letter and signed as Cardinal de’Medici in 1520.. King Henry VIII broke off relations with Pope Clement VII when he wouldn’t give Henry permission to marry Ann Boleyn. Pope Clement VII (26 May 1478 25 September 1534), born Giulio di Giuliano de' Medici, was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 19 November 1523 to … He was made archbishop of Florence and cardinal in 1513 by his cousin Pope Leo X, whose political policies he influenced. Death and character. Between 1562 and 1598, France was afflicted with civil wars between While Clement’s political foibles as pope proved more embarrassing publicly, his inability to stem the tide of the Reformation had more lasting consequences. It allows you to forgive unforgivable actions done towards you. Clement’s eleven-year pontificate saw his political diplomacy turn into a marked weakness as he failed to act decisively on two fronts: the Habsburg-Valois rivalry between Charles V and French king Francis I, and the ongoing religious controversy within the church revolving around Luther. He also lent valuable assistance in men and money to the emperor in his contest with the Turks in Hungary. He was the 220th Pope from 1523 to 1534. He was an Italian prince, a de’ Medici, and a diplomat first, and a spiritual ruler afterwards. During the attack, Clement sought refuge in the Castel Sant’Angelo in Rome and then lived outside Rome for almost one year. He named his cousin Archbishop of Florence and a Cardinal in 1513. Pope Clement VII. The protracted affair led to England’s decision to forge religious independence from Rome and eventually to accept the Reformation. Pope Clement VII. A weak, vacillating figure in the political struggles between King Francis I of France and the Holy Roman emperor Charles V for the domination of Europe, Clement shifted his support from one to the other while attempting to maintain control of Italy. Henry, … In 1521, Clement’s efforts led to an alliance between the pope and the new emperor, Charles V, whose candidacy Leo had opposed. The second Medici to wear the papal tiara in three pontificates, Clement VII’s tenure was marked by his relative inability to make progress in the face of political and ecclesiastical challenges. The artifact presented here is a document signed prior to Clement VII’s pontificate. Clement VII, original name Giulio de’ Medici, (born May 26, 1478, Florence [Italy]—died September 25, 1534, Rome), pope from 1523 to 1534. Clement VII excommunicated the English king, and with that the church lost a whole kingdom. Pope Clement VII. AKA Giulio de Medici. As pope, Clement had difficulty making decisions, which proved disastrous in the political climate of the time. He was the nephew of Lorenzo de' Medici and was therefore first cousin of Pope Leo X. Despite the fiscal constraints left him by the exhausted papal treasury of his cousin, Clement remained a patron of Renaissance art and letters, supporting the Florentine historian Francesco Guicciardini, the famed political thinker Nicolo Machiavelli, and artists Michelangelo and Raphael. Clement’s incapacitation complicated the English king Henry VIII’s request for an annulment of his marriage to Catherine of Aragon. Each cardinal received one thousand ducats; Colonna was given the vice-chancellorship and the Riario palace, and Soderini was restored to all his possessions. After the new pope’s election, he failed to renew a defensive alliance between Charles and the French intended to protect the Eastern front of Europe against the Turk. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. He gravely underestimated the depth and the dangers of his unpopularity in Germany, and the Reformation found the papacy psychologically unprepared for a radical and permanent rejection of its authority. The new peace was confirmed when the pope crowned Charles at Bologna in February 1530—the last pope to so crown an emperor. Giuliano was murdered shortly after his son’s birth, so the boy was taken in by his wealthy uncle, banking magnate Lorenzo the Magnificent. Clement’s position was weakened in 1526, when the French lost to Charles’s forces at Pavia, leading to the imprisonment of Francis himself. After Adrian's death two years later, de' Medici was chosen pope, taking the name Clement VII, on November 18, 1523, amid much celebration in Rome. He was born in Florence one month after his father's death. Bunson noted that he served as an advisor to both his cousin, Pope Leo X, and to his successor, … He planned an impressive group of monuments to members of his family for the New Sacristy (Sagrestia Nuova) in San Lorenzo, Florence, and in 1520 Michelangelo began the designs, which were to rank among the finest of his sculptures. An intellectual and a renowned musician, he was a highly discriminating patron whose circle included Baldassare Castiglione and Paolo Giovio. Pope Clement VII (Giulio de’ Medici) was the nephew of Lorenzo the Magnificent. Ago – Faith & Prayer Magnolia, Steven Ozment to Lecture on Luther and Cranach, The Protestant Reformation and the Arts – Discoveries, Luther’s Pastor. Clement VII was thus the unintentional originator of a fashion that lasted well over a century. Pope Clement VII was also known as: Giulio de' Medici Pope Clement VII is noted for: Failing to recognize and deal with the significant changes of the Reformation.Indecisive and in over his head, Clement's inability to stand strong against the powers of France and the Holy Roman Empire made an unstable situation worse. He named his cousin Archbishop of Florence and a Cardinal in 1513. As were the pontiffs mentioned, Clement was financially unsystematic and extravagant. Pope Clement VII is one of the legendary Renaissance Popes, coming from the House of Medici and the pope under whom Henry VIII established the English Church. Unlike his predecessor, who had eagerly sought a council, Clement resisted it despite pressure from Charles. Robert Kolb to Speak at Concordia Seminary on “Luther’s Fiercest Foes”, Miroslav Volf to Speak at Concordia Seminary, The “Three Kingdoms” of Simon Musaeus: An essay from the Festschrift for James M. Estes, Session 4 Links - Christ the King Lutheran Church, Session 2 Links - Christ the King Lutheran Church, Luther’s Reformation 500 Yrs. His reign was dominated by the spread of the Protestant Reformation, the conflict between France and the Empire, and the divorce of Henry VIII of England. The recurrent conflicts between Charles and the pope over the next few years, however, kept the emperor from pressing the matter. Updates? Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership, This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/biography/Clement-VII-pope, The Catholic Encyclopedia - Pope Clement VII, Luminarium Encyclopedia - Biography of Clement VII. Pope John XII (955 to 964) Attaining the title of pope at age 18, John XII was quickly deemed lazy … The next day, after a conclave lasting seven weeks, Medici was elected Pope and adopted the name of Clement VII. The Protestants suffered an estimated 15,000 casualties – three quarters of their fighting force. It also effectively made Clement a prisoner in Castle Sant’ Angelo for the next six months. Early in 1378, a group of primarily Italian cardinals elected Urban VI as pope. For the antipope (1378–1394) see Antipope Clement VII Clement VII (May 26, 1478 – September 25, 1534), born Giulio di Giuliano de' Medici, was a cardinal from September 23, 1513 to November 19, 1523 and was Pope from November 19, 1523 to September 25, 1534. Pope Clement VII. Clement’s religious and political timorousness was most exemplified by his handling of the Anne Boleyn affair. In 1309, he moved the Holy See to the city of Avignon (which was actually owned by the king of Sicily), right on Phillip’s back doorstep. Giulio de’ Medici, the illegitimate son of Giuliano de’Medici, was born in 1479 shortly after the murder of his father in the cathedral of Florence. Clement had everything Phillip wanted in a pope: He was puny, weak, new in the job, and owed everything to his French king. Clement’s alliance with France led to the emperor’s sack of Rome in May 1527. He commissioned Michelangelo to paint the Last Judgment in the Sistine Chapel before his death. Left Behind - (Mentioned) Count Vincent asked where the glasses with the golden rims from Pope Clement were.. Queen Catherine talks about her childhood, and how Pope Clement VII was the one to save her when … Pope Clement VII (26 May 1478 – 25 September 1534), born Giulio di Giuliano de' Medici, was a cardinal from 1513 to 1523 and was Pope from 1523 to 1534.. The artifact presented here is a document signed prior to Clement VII’s pontificate. Clement needed to keep the peace with Henry, who had been a supporter of the papacy against the early reformers, but Henry’s wife happened to be Charles’s aunt. The last stand of the Swiss Guard allowed Pope Clement VII time to escape the Vatican, and it weakened and demoralized the mutineers to such an extent that they could not hold the city. Although his uncle had planned a military career for him, Giulio de' Medici was interested in a life in the clergy. Matthew Bunson, author of The Pope Encyclopedia, wrote that his cousin, now Pope Leo X, ignored the tradition of illegitimate men not being able to be serve as bishops. Both England and France named him cardinal protector to defend their interests in the curia. Open Content images tend to be large in file-size. Era: 1523-1534. When Leo rose to the pontificate in 1513, he named Clement archbishop of Florence through a dispensation from canonical restrictions against illegitimate children attaining ecclesiastical office. His father, Giuliano de' Medici, was assassinated in the Pazzi Conspiracy. On January 5, 1531, Pope Clement VII sends a letter to King Henry VIII of England forbidding him to remarry under penalty of excommunication. Not as decisive or pragmatic as his cousin, Clement nevertheless played a leading role for the two popes preceding him, largely for his diplomatic adroitness. Pope Clement VII refused to annul the marriage of King Henry VIII of England, thus prompting the English Reformation, and England ceased communication with Rome.. Clement VIII, pope from 1592 to 1605, the last pontiff to serve during the Counter-Reformation. In 1598 Pope Clement won still more credit for the papacy by bringing about a definite treaty of peace between Spain and France in the Treaty of Vervins and between France and Savoy. Clement VII would have been remembered as one … Early Life. When Leo X died in 1521, Cardinal de' Medici helped get Adrian IV elected pope. Although he was a member of the wealthy Medici family, Clement VII was reported to be a personally devout and serious-minded pope. Corrections? Francis opposed such a council, and Clement was continually prevented from action on the urgent need for reform. Pope Clement VI, born as Pierre Roger in Acquitaine, France, in 1291, had been elected pope about six years before the plague's outbreak, in May 7, 1342. Charles eventually recessed the 1526 Diet of Speyer by suspending the edict, thereby allowing Protestantism more time to grow. There the future Clement would be raised alongside his cousin, the future pope. In 1523 he was elected to succeed Adrian VI. Like the preceding popes Alexander VI, Julius II, and Leo X, Clement appeared to his contemporaries primarily as a Renaissance prince preoccupied with Italian politics, the patronage and enjoyment of Renaissance culture, and the advancement of his family, the Medici. He sent Lorenzo Campeggio as papal legate to the 1524 diet in Nuremberg so the cardinal could support Charles’s Edict of Worms, which had made Luther an outlaw in the empire. The following year, however, he joined Francis in founding the League of Cognac, a treaty opposing Charles. He was released in December 1527, but fled the city to reside in Orvieto and Viterbo until October 1528. 92.PC.25. His indecisiveness allowed the Protestant revolt to grow, which was nurtured further by Henry’s eventual split from Rome. Pope Clement VII (Italian: Papa Clemente VII; Latin: Clemens VII) (26 May 1478 – 25 September 1534), born Giulio di Giuliano de' Medici, was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 19 November 1523 to his death on 25 September 1534. While he had applied some of the reform dictates from the Fifth Lateran Council in his Florence diocese, that same commitment to reform never followed under his pontificate. Born Giulio de’ Medici in Florence on May 26, 1478, he was the illegitimate son of Giuliano de’ Medici and his mistress. Later that same year, an opposing group of French cardinals elected Clement VII as pope, and he established the seat of his papacy in Avignon, France. Giulio de’ Medici was born a few months after the death of his father, Giuliano, who was slain at Florence in the disturbances which followed the Pazzi conspiracy. Sebastiano del Piombo (Italian, about 1485 - 1547) 105.4 × 87.6 cm (41 1/2 × 34 1/2 in.) Clement’s anti-imperial policy increased Charles’s difficulties in Germany, especially his battle against the growing Reformation. He furthered angered Charles in 1525 by joining the League of Cognac with France, Milan, Florence, and Venice. In 1533, Johann Widmanstetter (alternately spelled John Widmanstad), a secretary of Pope Clement VII, explained the Copernican system to the Pope and two cardinals. This time Clement was the candidate favored by Charles and the cardinals selected him on November 19, 1523. In this image, Urban VI sits at the right, and Clement VII sits at the left, flanked by his supporters. The Pope was so pleased that he gave Widmanstetter a valuable gift. In their verdict upon the character of Pope Clement VII almost all historians are agreed. When his cousin was made Pope Leo X, young Giulio was made cardinal of Florence. The Reformation in Germany worsened when Charles released Clement without attempting to secure a guarantee that ecclesiastical reform would commence or that a general council would be convened to solve the problem raised by the Lutheran movement. He supported Charles in the fighting that ended in the Battle of Pavia (February 24, 1525), during which Francis was taken prisoner. Reconciliation occurred only when Clement, still largely at the mercy of Charles, came to the conclusion that the Reformation in Germany and the threat of war with Ottoman forces were greater threats to them than each other. His intelligence was of a high order, though his diplomacy was feeble and irresolute. Clement obliged by staying in France, having his ceremony of investiture in Lyons. Pope Clement VII. Clement soon thereafter died on September 25, 1534 and was buried in Santa Maria sopra Minerva. A few weeks later, the French were defeated in Italy; Clement brought the revocation of Catherine’s cause to Rome (July 1529) and in March 1530 forbade Henry to remarry until the papal verdict was pronounced. Clement VII, c.1475–1534, pope (1523–34), a Florentine named Giulio de' Medici; successor of Adrian VI. Clement VII, Italian pope from 1523 to 1534. Reformation Church | church history review. Giulio served the new pope as he had Leo X, and when Adrian died in 1523, Giulio was elected, taking the name Clement VII. The holder of numerous church offices, he was made cardinal in 1585 by Pope Sixtus V and elected pope as Clement VIII on Jan. 30, 1592. To avoid potential data charges from your carrier, we recommend making sure your device is connected to a Wi-Fi network before downloading. Matthew Bunson, author of The Pope Encyclopedia,wrote that his cousin, now Pope Leo X, ignored the tradition of illegitimate men not being able to be serve as bishops. After considerable procrastination, which brought about Wolsey’s fall and the triumph of the anti-ecclesiastical party in England, Clement accelerated the breaking of the English church from Rome by finally pronouncing Henry’s marriage to Catherine valid in 1533. Later that year, Leo would elevate him to cardinal of Santa Maria Dominica by declaring the betrothal between Giuliano and his mistress legitimate. It is an untranslated letter and signed as Cardinal de’Medici in 1520.. King Henry VIII broke off relations with Pope Clement VII when he wouldn’t give Henry permission to marry Ann Boleyn. Bolstered by Swiss troops, Charles eventually sacked Rome in May 1527, laying siege to the city and desecrating many of the architectural and artistic gains made under the Renaissance popes. It eradicates obstacles and strengthens desires for comfort. Bunson noted that he served as an advisor to both his cousin, Pope Leo X, and to his successor, Pope Adrian VI… Clement VII (Latin: Clemens Septimus; 26 May 1478 – 25 September 1534), born Giulio di Giuliano de' Medici, was an Italian cleric of the Roman Catholic Church.He was the 220th Pope from 1523 to 1534. In life, special circumstances let you see the truth. Pope Clement VII was the head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 19 November 1523 to 25 September 1534. Clement VII, POPE (GIUNTO DE’ MEDICI), b. Hadrian died unexpectedly less than two years after his elevation, leading to a protracted fifty-day conclave to determine his replacement. Under pressure from Charles, the pope finally had the case transferred to Rome in 1529 and came to excommunicate Henry only in 1533 and void both his divorce to Catherine and his remarriage in 1534. Having previously served as the Archbishop of Florence, he took charge of the papacy during a very delicate situation, right after the end of the Italian Renaissance. Together with his cousin, Leo X, he represented nearly twenty years of Medici governance in Rome and he stood in stark contrast to his more reform-minded predecessor, Adrian VI, and successor, Paul III. In 1528 France invaded Italy, and Clement delegated Cardinal Lorenzo Campeggio as co-legate with Cardinal Wolsey to try Henry’s case in England, but on May 31, 1529, Catherine denied their jurisdiction and appealed to Rome to sustain a validation of her marriage. 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