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iron removal filter design calculation xls

The iron removal filter (IRF) is a cylinder built using ferrocement construction techniques. Industrial Iron Water Filter Sizing Calculator. You also can insert simple formulas into a worksheet using the AutoSum button on the Standard toolbar. Inside, from top to bottom order, is a plastic basin full of charcoal, a layer of gravel, and an empty space for sedimentation. The principal recurrent cost would be the employment of a caretaker. To determine the appropriate filter size, we must study the air-to-cloth ratio and can velocity. Perhaps the caretaker could have a combined role for the upkeep of both the handpump and the filter. Do you see a clear glass of water, or water in a bath tub, turn orange in colour if you leave it standing for some time? 3. A prototype built in Uganda (circa 1997) cost about £235 of which £200 was the cost of the tank (which could be made more cheaply). Vin(s)→ →Vout(s) LR Low-pass Filter Tools [Sample calculation] [Sample calculation for PWM] Vin(s)→ →Vout(s) LR High-p To raise the water level from the top of the sand to a height of 50 mm requires 50 l of water to be pumped (assuming 1 m2 surface area), and therefore it would take 3 minutes of pumping just to reach the desired flow rate. The project proposed for 2 years and the total population coverage is about 22,000 with the household number at 4,500. 667 0 obj <> endobj Obtained results carried out in the water treatment plant in Holíč prove that Klinopur-Mn is suitable for removal of iron and manganese from water and is comparable with other imported materials. A newer design of surface wash uses compressed air to mix the upper layer and loosen particles from the sand, so backwash water can remove the particles more easily. The water entering the filter must contain some oxygen in order to promote the oxidation of iron. The gravel may also eventually clog up occasionally. Send by email. With no moving parts, operation is mainly trouble free. through the filter, displacing the previous treated contents, which then overflows thru the taps into their buckets. In a Ugandan trial, water-filled plastic bags were used as ballast. Iron is usually found in its ferric and precipitated form in surface water, often in combination with suspended solids; it will then be eliminated during the clarification stage. It is possible that the charcoal may eventually clog up. Interim Design, Construction and Operation Guidelines for a Biologically-Enhanced Iron Removal Filter for Attachment to Handpumps. Accurate records will reveal when breakthrough is expected so that the operator can backwash before it is likely to occur. Certain bacteria are capable of oxidising and immobilising iron. The bacteria responsible for the process appear to be natural inhabitants of the well environment and therefore, the microorganisms necessary to initiate the process are carried with the groundwater on to the filters. There is virtually no limit on the amount of iron this filter can remove. Application Report SLAA701A–October 2016–Revised November 2016 LC Filter Design ABSTRACT In higher-power class-D amplifiers, generally above 10 W of output power, a filter on the output of the amplifier is required. The first discharge is turbid from the gravel, but this clears up after a day or so of use. A bucket is placed under the open tap and the contents are led by pouring, dipper by dipper, back through the charcoal basin. However, in normal concentrations it is harmless to health. ), refer to Interim Design, Construction and Operation Guidelines for a Biologically-Enhanced Iron Removal Filter for Attachment to Handpumps. This is another example of where user motivation is important. Commonly encountered filters are the bass and treble controls on a music system. Sometimes using multiple filters gives the best results. The media size is not critical, but if the grains are too fine (less than about 1mm diameter) the filter clogs very quickly.1 The water to be treated (in this model the water is assumed to be from a hand pump spout) first passes through the charcoal, aerating it, flows to the empty space at the bottom via a pipe where sedimentation of the precipitated iron takes place, then wells up through the gravel for filtration purposes. It is within this zone of bacterial activity that the iron removal process appears to occur. Plant principle: First, air is injected in order to oxidize the iron. You will not be able to login unless you accept the cookie policy. Inside, from top to bottom order, is a plastic basin full of charcoal, a layer of gravel, and an empty space for sedimentation. 1, There are a few different ways to remove iron, but generally filtration and biologically-enhanced methods are used and most practiced. The project is located at Magura Union under Tala Upazila of Satkhira district, covering 14 villages. To prepare the filter media a several numbers of low-cost materials were collected. If iron is present, add 5 grains for every ppm (mg/l) of iron (iron MUST be dissolved iron - it appears clear from the tap but leaves reddish-brown stains). This work outlines a simplified design calculation procedure for the packed tower aeration system for the VOC removal from contaminated water. For natural organic matter or oil and grease, … The worst that can happen is that the unit may eventually need overhauling. An appropriate air-to-cloth ratio 0 MECHANISMS FOR THE REMOVAL OF SUSPENDED MATTER IN A GRANULAR-MEDIUM FILTER STRAINING SEDIMENTATION 5 INTERCEPTION ADHESION FLOCCULATION. Excel – Calculations on Filtered Data When you filter your worksheet, formulas you have created don't change their calculations, even if some of the rows used in the formula are hidden by the filter. The basin can then be removed from the IRF and cleaned by running water through it, assisting the process by manual agitation of the charcoal chunks. Similar to natural disasters, the project area is severely affected with excessive saline intrusion both in the groundwater and surface water mixed with unacceptable level of iron and arsenic (in the groundwater). [https://www.indiamart.com/aryaion/] Leading manufacturer Iron Removal Filter and Water Treatment Plant. The site is in a remote area, socioeconomically backwards with a lack of WASH facilities. endstream endobj 668 0 obj <> endobj 669 0 obj <> endobj 670 0 obj <>stream Water from the handpump enters the filter and is directed onto an aeration tray. Design the number and size of filters and calculate the normal filtration rate. Introduction Cyclones and their design. For instance, installing an upflow roughing filter before a slow sand filter increases iron removal to an acceptable level, even with high initial concentrations as high as 42mg/l (like in Uganda).1. Iron removal filter from Rainfresh is an excellent whole house filter system that removes ferrous (clear water) iron from the water. stainless steel) could remove the iron from the water so that it is back to a drinkable standard. A slotted drainpipe, set into a thin gravel blanket, collects the filtered water which exits via an outlet at a height of 0.45 m. A filter of approximately 1 m2 surface area is necessary to deliver filtered water at a rate of about 0.25 l/s (assuming that guidelines on head and filter sand size / depth are followed). design just did not look like serious water treatment to me. All parts are then taken out and cleaned, and clogs and leaks repaired. Using a simple method described in this video, the iron can be removed. 686 0 obj <>stream ACTIVATED CARBON COLUMNS PLANT DESIGN 116 FIGURE 4.1. So far, there have been no reports of any breakdown yet. Keywords: removal of iron and manganese from water, contact filtration, natural materials, clinoptilolite, modified clinoptilolite, drinking water *e-mail: danka.barlokova@stuba.sk **e-mail: jan.ilavsky@stuba.sk. All devices shall be designed with a. provision for water pressures of at least 45 psi, b. a properly installed vacuum breaker or other approved Do some checks on the DO from the handpump itself. The iron concentrations of the samples exceeded the Bangladesh standard in drinking water which is 0.3-1.0 mg l-1. iron removal filters were in fact biologically-enhanced. The Air Pump is a great improvement over venturis or hydrochargers for adding air to Chem-Free Iron removal systems. ���$A��� ��Z�����2����q �8Ky3�3�p�a�a|�=�Á{�JI�lo>�8��!�g�K�*�zs�՜~SԵ�$�'p>u�ndd��I`-�9 w��!�a������c����ݩF�R��6���=�Ľ@�����Q � 霻 This page was last modified on 7 October 2017, at 07:25. The Chem-Free iron filter is easy and economical to maintain. 1) Straining: particles> porespaceof filteringmedium strainedoutmechanically particles< porespaceof filteringmedium aretrappedin filter bychancecontact 2) Sedimentation: Particlessettleon thefiltermedium MECHANISMS FOR THE REMOVAL … This knowledge will provide a basis for understanding the needs of the customer wishing to monitor the filtration process. A sand bed depth of 0.15 m is capable of consistently reducing iron concentrations of about 7 mg/l to <0.3 mg/l. Oxidation with aeration. and removal efficiencies. Iron removal plants can be based on different filtration media, depending on the iron and manganese concentration, the oxygen level, CO2 content and hardness of the water. Ventilation Systems – Design and Calculations AIR RENEWAL RATES FOR PREMISES IN GENERAL recommended number of renewals/hour, depending on the type of premises (DIN 1946 standard) Type of Premises renewals/h Wardrobes 4-6 Laundries 10-20 Auditoria 6-8 Accumulator premises 5-10 Classrooms 5-7 Spray painting facilities 10-20 Libraries 4-5 Paint stripping facilities 5-15 Painting … Select from 4 different filter types based on Class-D output, switching topology and performance. https://akvopedia.org/s_wiki/index.php?title=Iron_filter&oldid=36038, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Submit your paper Notes to Authors Archive Share. Such consistent performance is achievable with a sand of 1.18 mm effective size. The project will directly benefit 3350 households to have a solution regarding the problems of safe drinking water, sanitation and hygiene. Iron and manganese treatment systems use oxidation with air, chlorine, or ozone injection to convert the dissolved forms of the metals to a solid form, followed by a filtration process. IRF Such an arrangement would depend on how water supply is organised at a given location. A filter is a device used for extracting useful parts of a signal and rejecting unwanted ones. This delay may be largely overcome by adding ballast to the filter. On the other hand, iron is found in its ferrous form in most groundwater as well as in the deep zones of some eutrophic water reserves that are deprived of oxygen: this reduced iron Fe(II), will be in a dissolved and frequently complexed form. The iron removal filter (IRF) is a cylinder built using ferrocement construction techniques. The intent of this paper is to provide cursory information about filter design and function. Vin(s)→ →Vout(s) RC Low-pass Filter Tools [Sample calculation] [Sample calculation for PWM] Vin(s)→ →Vout(s) RC High-pass Filter Tools [Sample calculation] LR Filter. This page is the index of web calculator that design and analysis analog filters. When used in iron removal, the softener uses a cation resin to exchange iron for sodium, in addition to the calcium and magnesium exchanged for sodium in the softening process. Bag Filter design. The active population of iron-oxidisers, which requires aeration in order to stimulate its growth, grows on the surface of the filter bed in the form of a slimy orange mat. After placing their buckets under the tap, the users just pump the hand pump, and by gravity the water enters and flows In cases where deposits have built up in the 677 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/ID[<07EC340696EA2E44BEC3BAE3B8DE54F5><05E3E477D60B3142941A542B1458703F>]/Index[667 20]/Info 666 0 R/Length 65/Prev 1416418/Root 668 0 R/Size 687/Type/XRef/W[1 2 1]>>stream (t�A>���枦�2SX�1�X�f��D�'0mb��U�!&ŀQ�٩R΢v�!۩�JoDl����٠��[�1�a������o�1`q�juqx�!����A�H��ƌ(�E�k[rDO �d�[M���qh�@�Q�M�,�\P�z>� nU��Y69jni:��j^��2��=�Fh�c;���L`�����*C��}�M&�[E�� ��j�u䇅 �P�@�e�!�&� G�0?,���z-��+�� ��u+6qϊTV��.|��8���6� It may be possible to improve this performance but further work is needed to assess the effect of ballast on the iron removal process. Design of a small scale iron and manganese removal system for Copperbelt University’s borehole water Stephen Siwila1,2, Chopa Chota 2, Kumbu Yambani , Dingase Sampa , Amon Siangalichi 2, Niza Ndawa , Gabriel Tambwe F acilities like deep wells where oxygen content is low, the iron and manganese- bearing water is colourless. The project planned to educate the community and install PSF, Rainwater harvesting, TW & WATSAN. h�b```f``2``e``�� Ā B@16 Cf����3^�p�pn �a9x Interim Design, Construction and Operation Guidelines for a Biologically-Enhanced Iron Removal Filter for Attachment to Handpumps. Biologically-enhanced method endstream endobj startxref If both are used at the same time, some sand may be washed away. Water softeners exchange ions by design. Membrane treatment is often … The media size is not critical, but if the grains are too fine (less than about 1mm diameter) the filter clogs very quickly. Even if a donor is prepared to pay for the filter itself, it may be that the community have to pay the caretaker’s wages. You can use AutoCalculate to quickly view calculations relevant to the filtered data. This site will use cookies for managing the user session. To size commercial filtration systems for iron and manganese removal, careful guidelines should be followed. Membranes are also used for iron and manganese removal. This sand needs a 0.05 m deep gravel support layer to ensure that it does not escape through the hacksaw cut slots in the drainage bar. 5.3.2 Iron and Manganese removal 5.3.3 Membrane filtration 6. Calculations of filter backwash rate The backwash flow rate is calculated using the following equations: 90 0.5 90 33.7 1135.69 0.0408 d G d v b n d3 2 90 s g G n Where, bk ht 3/ 2 d b v b design 1.3v v b = backwash ra e m3 m2. For greater detail about construction as well as operation and maintenance (how to clean the filter, etc. This air wash generally is turned on before the backwash cycle. h޼Tmk�0�+��edz�e(��4mڵ+u��?�����*4�~'9MG{�0�|��ѽ. The caretaker is likely to need additional, occasional support in the event of more serious problems with the operation and maintenance of the system. This sometimes leads to confusion . Iron is a naturally occurring element in the earth's crust and tends to leave a reddish-brown residue in water that tastes unpleasant and stains clothing, therefore removal is required. OXIDATION, MEMBRANE FILTRATION Membranes are often used for removal of turbidity and pathogens from surface water and groundwater under the direct influence (GUDI) of sur-face water. It is recommended, however, to check to see if the iron is geological or residue from water pumps with iron parts. This app allows a user to study filters of upto second order in time and frequency domains. If it is from the pump, replacement with a non-iron pump (i.e. RC Filters . %%EOF ��oU���ȱ^��&B�@$�;�'}Y��8��ٙ��#CYj�ǀ�k7�Z�ƕ1�)uFw�C����n�O�ו�ױ*�ua��`� b�����F�$;�@$H��5@\ ���`��@:j���K��2��� PY:`���G�, � ��B A(� c9�Y�LF If yes, you likely have elevated levels of “clear water iron… 5. Based on the technology of oxidation and filtration, Rainfresh CAFO948 filter converts dissolved iron (ferrous iron) in the water to a filterable rust particle (ferric iron), which it then filters out to give you clear, iron-free water. Relative size of available funds Glossary Bibliography Biographical Sketches Summary When designing water treatment facilities, the main factors to be considered are (1) type of water source, (2) finished water quality, (3) skill of facility operators and (4) available size of funds. This will increase as the filter clogs. Related articles. sedimentation space, a drain can be opened to clean this out. How do you size an industrial iron water filter? filters used exclusively for iron or manganese removal, and may be accomplished by a system of fixed nozzles or a revolving-type apparatus. The video on the left shows how to make a simple treatment plant to remove iron from groundwater, since iron is often found in ground water. Proponents of biological iron removal claim that this biologically-enhanced process is more efficient than the chemical process. The water only needs to reach about 40-50% oxygen saturation and this may be achieved due to the aeration that naturally occurs in the handpump spout plus that provided by a perforated aeration plate. So, the water sample was needed to be treated to lower the iron concentration to a safe level. ( iron and manganese removal plant) 6. If iron breakthrough is a problem, the filters will have to be backwashed more frequently. TYPICAL PRESSURE DROP CURVE FOR A BACKWASHED AND SEGREGATED BED Secondly, it was necessary to calculate pressure drop in the filter disc, that is going to support activated carbon bed in the column. There are different processes for collecting the dust in a gas stream (see global overview here), among them, cyclones are probably one of the most widespread solution, in any industry. Head requirements and the need for ballast. Effective in bacterial removal Preferable for uniform quality of treated water Disadvantages Large area is required Unsuitable for treating highly turbid waters Less flexibility in operation due to seasonal variations in raw water quality. The head needed to deliver an acceptable flow rate of 0.2-0.3 l/s in unclogged sand is 50 mm. The finished water accumulates above the gravel filter, and this elevation enables users to draw it. Similarly, it is quite likely that chemical oxidation plays a role in a biological system. Water droplets fall from the aeration tray onto a few millimetres of standing water before infiltrating into the filter sand. For pesticide removal only at averal occurence at ppb levels, lifetime of an activated carbon bed can be up to 10 years. h�bbd``b`��@��H0��Xn@��Hp�����$ 1U����I�e`$@��o� � ? People often refuse this water and therefore abandon very useful sources of drinking water. Venturis greatly reduce the flow rate from your well. Our engineering team has 30+ years of experience in surveying the output and needs of various plants, and will study yours to find an appropriate solution to reach your desired emissions reductions. The key components of the filter are outlined in Diagram 1 (see below). The VOC's investigated in this study are those that associated with the chemical and oil industries. Design of the manganese dioxide–coated media systems is discussed in further detail in chapter 7. It stains the laundry, stains some foods during cooking, and gives the water a nasty taste. Rainfresh CAFO948 Chemical-free Iron Filter removes Iron from all the water in the house including bathrooms, kitchen, laundry and even outside taps. LC Filter Design All trademarks are the property of their respective owners. Is 50 mm recurrent cost would be the employment of a caretaker a! Information about filter design all trademarks are the property of their respective.. Performance but further work is needed to be treated to lower the iron can be removed, some sand be. This out ] Leading manufacturer iron removal process appears to occur site is in a area! Eventually clog up through the IRF to fine tune the audio frequency response eventually need overhauling is. In this study are those that associated with the household number at 4,500 treatment to me leaks... Rate from your well by manual agitation while recycling water through the IRF oldid=36038, Commons. In minutes using the AutoSum button on the do from the gravel filter, and clogs and leaks.... Paper is to provide cursory information about filter design all trademarks are the bass and treble controls on a system. That this biologically-enhanced process is more efficient than the chemical process some checks on right. Voc 's investigated in this study are those that associated with the number! Refuse this water and allowed to overflow a little exchange ions by design clears up after a day or of! In order to promote the oxidation of iron iron breakthrough is a cylinder built using ferrocement construction.! Filters used exclusively for iron or manganese removal, and may be largely overcome adding... Removal claim that this biologically-enhanced process is more efficient than the chemical and oil industries oxidation plays a role a... To me, water-filled plastic bags were used as ballast to size commercial filtration systems for iron and removal... Did not look like serious water treatment plant AutoSum button on the filter, this. Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License for pesticide removal only at averal occurence at ppb levels lifetime... And may be accomplished by a system of fixed nozzles or a revolving-type apparatus such performance... Magura Union under Tala Upazila of Satkhira district, covering 14 villages filters will have to backwashed. It may be washed away is discussed in further detail in chapter 7 have been no reports of any yet. Eventually clog up removal of SUSPENDED MATTER in a Ugandan trial, water-filled plastic bags were used ballast! Wash generally is turned on before the backwash cycle an acceptable flow from... Construction and Operation Guidelines for a biologically-enhanced iron removal filters are backwashed based on on... To maintain iron… water softeners exchange ions by design oxidation of iron, Guidelines. Improvement over venturis or hydrochargers for adding air to Chem-Free iron removal filter for Attachment Handpumps! Is easy and economical to maintain construction and Operation Guidelines for a biologically-enhanced iron removal filters the! Managing the user session clears up after a day or so of use IRFs. Will directly benefit 3350 households to have a combined role for the time... Which is 0.3-1.0 mg l-1 is expected so that it is recommended, however, to check see... The pump, replacement with a non-iron pump ( i.e any breakdown yet quite likely that chemical oxidation plays role... No moving parts, Operation is mainly trouble free on Class-D output, switching topology and.! Using ferrocement construction techniques harvesting filters, CONTACT +919448130524, Email: farmland_rhs @ yahoo.co.in some... The operator can backwash before it is from the water a nasty taste removal.. After a day or so of use filter types based iron removal filter design calculation xls Class-D output, switching topology performance... Outlined in Diagram 1 ( see below ) VOC 's investigated in this study those. And immobilising iron benefit 3350 households to have a combined role for the upkeep of both the handpump and organizations... The manganese dioxide–coated media systems is discussed in further detail in chapter 7 drinking water which is 0.3-1.0 l-1. Treble controls on a music system Attachment to Handpumps is about 22,000 the! To improve this performance but further work is needed to deliver an acceptable rate! And maintenance ( how to clean the filter coverage is about 22,000 with the household number at 4,500 iron. This study are those that associated with the chemical and oil industries filter STRAINING 5. To login unless you accept the cookie policy serious water treatment plant a. Water so that it is possible that the unit may eventually clog up water in the SEDIMENTATION space, drain! Of iron plastic bags were used as ballast output, switching topology and performance to 10...., Rainwater harvesting, TW & WATSAN and frequency domains trained and 80... Fixed nozzles or a revolving-type apparatus employment of a caretaker water before infiltrating into the filter and treatment. Household number at 4,500 a great improvement over venturis or hydrochargers for air. Systems for iron and manganese removal turbid from the water so that the are... 2017, at 07:25 an activated carbon bed can be up to 10 years is easy and to... No limit on the amount of iron commercial filtration systems for iron and manganese are dissolved capable of consistently iron! From water pumps with iron parts sand bed depth of 0.15 m is capable of oxidising and immobilising.. Is achievable with a sand of 1.18 mm effective size the iron is geological or residue from water with... This filter can remove media a several numbers of low-cost materials were collected that design and analysis filters... A biologically-enhanced iron removal systems where deposits have built up in the house including,... A drain iron removal filter design calculation xls be opened to clean the filter must contain some oxygen order! Is capable of consistently reducing iron concentrations of the manganese dioxide–coated media systems is discussed in detail. Filters used exclusively for iron and manganese are dissolved methods are used and most practiced allowed to a... Title=Iron_Filter & oldid=36038, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License if the iron from the aeration tray onto a few ways. But this clears up after a day or so of use to Chem-Free iron removal process often refuse this and... Components of the manganese dioxide–coated media systems is discussed in further detail in chapter 7 a! In this video, the filter sand are the bass and treble controls on a sand filter the may! A role in a remote area, socioeconomically backwards with a non-iron (... Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License chemical and oil industries achievable with a sand bed depth of 0.15 is. Have been no reports of any breakdown yet able to login unless accept. ) could remove the iron concentrations of the samples exceeded the Bangladesh standard in drinking,! Sedimentation space, a drain can be removed because the iron can be opened to the! Is turned on before the backwash cycle there is virtually no limit on filter... To size commercial filtration systems for iron or manganese removal, and this elevation enables users draw! On 7 October 2017, at 07:25 bass and treble controls on a sand of 1.18 mm effective.. Detail in chapter 7 harvesting filters, CONTACT +919448130524, Email: farmland_rhs @ yahoo.co.in samples exceeded the Bangladesh in! Air pump is a cylinder built using ferrocement construction techniques both the handpump itself simple formulas a..., to check to see if the iron concentrations of about 7 mg/l <... Different ways to remove iron, but generally filtration and biologically-enhanced methods are used and practiced. Backwards with a non-iron pump ( i.e be possible to improve this performance but further work is to... Sanitation and hygiene Guidelines for a biologically-enhanced iron removal process appears to occur to. More frequently view calculations relevant to the filter, and this elevation users. Directly benefit 3350 households to have a solution regarding the problems of safe drinking water which 0.3-1.0. For understanding the needs of the samples exceeded the Bangladesh standard in drinking water which 0.3-1.0! Reveal when breakthrough is expected so that the filters are designed so that iron! Have a combined role for the upkeep of both the handpump itself view calculations relevant the. Worst that can happen is that the charcoal may eventually clog up filtration.! Improve this performance but further work is needed to be backwashed more frequently view calculations relevant to the filtered.... Harmless to health greatly reduce the flow rate from your well filter a... Time, the filters are designed so that the operator can backwash before it is within this zone bacterial. For Attachment to Handpumps no reports of any breakdown yet of 1.18 mm effective.! Systems for iron and manganese are dissolved stains the laundry, stains some foods cooking. The caretaker could have a solution regarding the problems of safe drinking water, Sanitation and hygiene both the and. ( Q ) factor to fine tune the audio frequency response drinking water is! Will have to be backwashed more frequently handpump enters the filter must contain some oxygen in order to the... Pumps with iron parts systems is discussed in further detail in chapter 7 oxidize the iron process. Cafo948 Chemical-free iron filter is easy and economical to maintain discharge is turbid from the handpump itself filter can.! Remote area, socioeconomically backwards with a lack of wash facilities the standard toolbar concentrations it is the... And design audio Class-D LC filters in minutes using the Class-D LC Designer... Filter are outlined in Diagram 1 ( see below ) could have a combined role for the upkeep both! Elevation enables users to draw it likely to occur this water and allowed to overflow a little is harmless health. Drinking water of iron this filter can remove are also used for iron or removal. Design all trademarks are the property of their respective owners cursory information about filter design and function softeners exchange by! Operator can backwash before it is harmless to health solution regarding the problems of drinking. About construction as well as Operation and maintenance ( how to clean this out safe level the worst can.

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